The “fondur” (or filler) is often applied in the first layer (after a possible tinting) and is intended to quickly fill the pores of the wood. It is generally used to fix a tint or when it is desired to obtain a perfectly smooth and shiny surface. Note that a fondur will always be covered with a finishing product.
The wax is the weakest protection that can be brought to a realization. It is, in fact, particularly sensitive to water and heat. But, by cons, it has the merit of bringing a nice “patina” or “heat” to a piece of furniture and therefore to give it character …
A small note however: we can still improve the resistance of a polished finish by applying, beforehand, a layer of “fondur” which we spoke just before.
In essence, oils are not much more efficient than waxes in the protection of wood, except that most manufacturers have added driers to accelerate the “drying” and hardening of these oils.
The oiled finish also has many advantages: easy to use, does not form a film, water-repellent function and, in keeping with the times, it is environmentally friendly.
Be careful that most oils alter the color by saturating the color of the wood.
A little reminder about the application of an oil: we usually work with a brush or cotton cloth, until the wood is saturated. Then, after about half an hour, wipe with a cloth, let it dry and repeat the operation from one to two times (with, preferably, a slight intermediate sanding).